In book: Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (pp.309-312) Authors: D. Blair. The most reliable forms of logic are modus ponens, modus tollens, and chain arguments because if the premises of the argument are true, then the conclusion necessarily follows. 511–512, Russell, Bertrand. Common deductive argument forms are hypothetical syllogism, categorical syllogism, argument by definition, argument based on mathematics, argument from definition. Russell wrote: "Some kind of knowledge of logical forms, though with most people it is not explicit, is involved in all understanding of discourse. It investigates the notion that within generative grammar there is a level of linguistic representation Logical Form. To demonstrate the important notion of the form of an argument, substitute letters for similar items throughout the sentences in the original argument. Informally, the logical form attempts to formalize a possibly ambiguous statement into a statement with a precise, unambiguous logical interpretation with respect to a formal system. It investigates the notion that within generative grammar there is a level of linguistic representation Logical Form. For the possible complements of a verb in linguistics, see, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, CUP 1999, pp. The most reliable forms of logic are modus … But different people understand the term logical form differently, so before we proceed, some clarification is necessary. Its main assumption is that this is a level of phrase structure representation, derived by … Just as linguists recognize recursive structure in natural languages, it appears that logic needs recursive structure. Moreover, each individual sentence of the argument form is the sentence form of its respective sentence in the original argument.[5]. The logical form of a sentence is determined by the semantic types of its primitive … p. 53, Beaney, Michael, "Analysis", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. Therefore, Jan Łukasiewicz claims that the introduction of variables was "one of Aristotle's greatest inventions.". Fiengo and May are the authors of, 全体的な星の評価と星ごとの割合の内訳を計算するために、単純な平均は使用されません。その代わり、レビューの日時がどれだけ新しいかや、レビューアーがAmazonで商品を購入したかどうかなどが考慮されます。また、レビューを分析して信頼性が検証されます。, さらに、映画もTV番組も見放題。200万曲が聴き放題 The term "logical form" itself was introduced by Bertrand Russell in 1914, in the context of his program to formalize natural language and reasoning, which he called philosophical logic. With regard to (1) and (7), it see… In contemporary generative linguistics, the logical form of a sentence, or LF, is standardly construed as a level of syntactic representation that is the proper input to semantic interpretation. Abstract. Our Knowledge of the External World: as a field for scientific method in philosophy. 1240 Social Science and Humanities 1 Shields Avenue UC Davis Davis, CA 95616. email Phone: 530-752-0703 Fax: 530-752-8964 . Robert May. Deep syntax structures are unordered (or can be viewed as unordered for the purpose of semantic representation) and thus a λ-expression can refer to grammatical functions raher than the order in which syntactic structures are built up. All logical form arguments are either inductive or deductive. Attention is given to argument and sentence form, because form is what makes an argument valid or cogent. On the modern view, the fundamental form of a simple sentence is given by a recursive schema, like natural language and involving logical connectives, which are joined by juxtaposition to other sentences, which in turn may have logical structure. The importance of the concept of form to logic was already recognized in ancient times. There are a number of (interrelated) reasons for giving a rendering of a sentence's logical form. For the linguistics term, see, "Argument structure" redirects here. ),, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On the traditional view, the form of the sentence consists of (1) a subject (e.g., "man") plus a sign of quantity ("all" or "some" or "no"); (2) the, The modern view is more complex, since a single judgement of Aristotle's system involves two or more logical connectives. There are a number of … Logical Form contains several technical innovations: the notion that LF-movement closely approximates "Move α," a new approach to characterizing quantifier scope, which makes central use of the notion of "government," a novel interpretation of the relation of syntactic nodes and categorical projections, and an application of path theory to the syntactic structure of Logical Form. Logical Form in Linguistics. 1914(1993). Aristotle, in the Prior Analytics, was probably the first to employ variable letters to represent valid inferences. (Linguistic) meaning is part of deep syntax, hence it should be assembled there. [8] In argumentation theory or informal logic, an argument form is sometimes seen as a broader notion than the logical form.[9]. Attention is given to argument and sentence form, because form is what makes an argument valid or cogent. [6] Two invalid argument forms are affirming the consequent and denying the antecedent. Log­i­cal Form is the level of rep­re­sen­ta­tion that af­fects the se­man­tic in­ter­pre­ta­tion of a sen­tence. According to the followers of Aristotle like Ammonius, only the logical principles stated in schematic terms belong to logic, and not those given in concrete terms. The book explores Logical Form by focusing primarily on quantificational phenomena and on how their explicit syntactic representation interacts with various syntactic and semantic properties. Logical Form in Linguistics Department of Philosophy. This article is about the term as used in logic. LF is some­times re­ferred to as a covert level of rep­re­sen­ta­tion, be­cause the out­put of this level is not … All logical form arguments are either inductive or deductive. We defend a conception of logical form as semantic form revealed by a composition meaning theory. In philosophy and mathematics, logical form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system. Robert May is Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science, Linguistics, and Philosophy at the University of California, Irvine. [7] Some authors only define logical form with respect to whole arguments, as the schemata or inferential structure of the argument. Among the topics discussed are the interactions of wh and quantified phrases, bound variable anaphora, branching quantifiers, extraposition and multiple interrogation. Medieval logicians recognized the problem of multiple generality, where Aristotelian logic is unable to satisfactorily render such sentences as "some guys have all the luck," because both quantities "all" and "some" may be relevant in an inference, but the fixed scheme that Aristotle used allows only one to govern the inference. Request full-text PDF. Thus, for example, the expression "all A's are B's" shows the logical form which is common to the sentences "all men are mortals," "all cats are carnivores," "all Greeks are philosophers," and so on. Logical Form in Linguistics Department of Philosophy 1240 Social Science and Humanities 1 Shields Avenue UC Davis Davis, CA 95616 email Phone: 530-752-0703 Fax: 530-752-8964 map About … December 2006; DOI: 10.1016/B0-08 -044854-2/01190-1. The logical form of an argument is called the argument form of the argument. Logical Form is Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 12. For example, the sentence "All men are mortal" involves, in term logic, two non-logical terms "is a man" (here, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 15:27. Given a valid inference, there is a sense in which the premisescontain the conclusion, which is correspondingly extractable from thepremises. Logical Form in Linguistics. All that has been done in the argument form is to put H for human and humans, M for mortal, and S for Socrates. Authors Robert May University of California, Davis Abstract The LOGICAL FORM of a sentence (or utterance) is a formal representation of its logical structure; that is, of the structure which is relevant to specifying its logical role and properties. New York: Routledge. What results is the form of the original argument. Inductive logical forms include inductive generalization, statistical arguments, causal argument, and arguments from analogy. "[2][3], In artificial intelligence, logical forms have been used in semantic parsers for natural language understanding.[4]. 。クラウドに好きなだけ写真も保存可能。, Logical Form (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs) (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs (12)), このショッピング機能は、Enterキーを押すと商品を読み込み続けます。このカルーセルから移動するには、見出しのショートカットキーを使用して、次の見出しまたは前の見出しに移動してください。, 商品詳細ページを閲覧すると、ここに履歴が表示されます。チェックした商品詳細ページに簡単に戻る事が出来ます。, © 1996-2020,, Inc. or its affiliates. The fundamental difference between modern formal logic and traditional, or Aristotelian logic, lies in their differing analysis of the logical form of the sentences they treat: The more complex modern view comes with more power. Click Here for Items Related To - Logical Form (linguistics) In some theories of syntax and grammar, in particular in the Chomskyan schools of government and binding theory and the minimalist program , the Logical Form (abbreviated LF and conventionally spelled with capital initial letters) of a linguistic expression is a mental representation of it, derived solely from surface structure .

logical form, linguistics

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