By doing this, it allows businesses to find weaknesses in the products produced before, thus leading to improvements and expansion on the aforementioned product.  In this approach, the strategic choices involve decisions about whether to compete for a share of the total market or for a specific target group (competitive scope) and whether to compete on costs or product differences (competitive advantage). By being a first entrant, it is easy to avoid higher switching costs compared to later entrants. Mintzberg identifies two types of strategy namely deliberate strategy and inadvertent strategy.  Late Followers have the advantage of catching the shifts in customer needs and wants towards the products. Scholars like Philip Kotler continue to debate the precise meaning of marketing strategy. , The most commonly used tools and techniques include:. ) A vision statement is designed to present a realistic long-term future scenario for the organisation. This means that objectives do not include desired financial outcomes exclusively, but also specify measures of performance for customers (e.g. A right marketing strategy plays an important role in the success of a business. Right marketing technique increases the visibility … , High levels of horizontal integration lead to high levels of communication within the business. Assets e.g. Capabilities (or competencies) e.g.  When bearing in mind customer preference, customer value has a significant influence. A strong vision statement typically includes the following:, Some scholars point out the market visioning is a skill or competency that encapsulates the planners' capacity "to link advanced technologies to market opportunities of the future, and to do so through a shared understanding of a given product market. See for example: Aaker, D. and Mills, M. K., Kaplan, S. and Norton, D. P., "Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work," in, "Old and new approaches to marketing. Strategies often specify how to adjust the marketing mix; firms can use tools such as Marketing Mix Modeling to help them decide how to allocate scarce resources, as well as how to allocate funds across a portfolio of brands. Barney stated that for resources to hold potential as sources of sustainable competitive advantage, they should be valuable, rare and imperfectly imitable. Strategic marketing, as a distinct field of study emerged in the 1970s and 80s, and built on strategic management that preceded it. It is a "clearly articulated statement of the business scope." Strategic planning involves an analysis of the company's strategic initial situation prior to the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented competitive position that contributes to the company's goals and marketing objectives.. , The aim of the PEST analysis is to identify opportunities and threats in the wider operating environment. A firm may grow by developing the market or by developing new products. Marketing strategy are business tactics which help companies grow in the market through effective marketing, promotion & advertising. Goals are designed to inspire action and focus attention on specific desired outcomes. A marketing strategy helps an organization to concentrate it’s scarce resouces on the best possible opportunities so as to increase the sales. The distinction between “strategic” and “managerial” marketing is used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools. The development of a marketing strategy involves the identification of target market segment, setting of short-term and long-term goals, pre-requisite … As businesses become more globalized, they may need to pay greater attention to the supranational level. (Seth Godin, former business executive, and entrepreneur), "The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well the product or service fits him and sells itself." Organisational culture e.g. A larger business helps the reputation and increases the severity of the punishment. At the conclusion of the research and analysis stage, the firm will typically review its vision statement, mission statement and, if necessary, devise a new vision and mission for the outlook period. Ferrell, O. C., Lucas Jr, G. H. and Luck, D. J., Sammut-Bonnici, T. and Galea, F., "PEST Analysis" in, Susan E. Reid and Ulrike de Brentani, “The Impact of Market Vision on Early Success with Leader Users” ANZMAC, 2006 www.anzmac.org, Pierce, E. M., "Developing, Implementing and Monitoring an Information Product Quality Strategy,". Homburg, Christian; Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer. Marketing strategy defines the company’s marketing & advertising strategies based on business goals. For example, those who enter later would have to invest more expenditure in order to encourage customers away from early entrants. Brexit refers to the U.K.'s withdrawal from the European Union after voting to do so in a June 2016 referendum. Marketing strategy highlights the role of marketing as a link between the organization and its customers. These entrants into the market can also be seen as challengers to the Market Pioneers and the Late Followers.