The naval force for the operation would be led by Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham. This would later prove problematic as it took substantial time to advance troops from Casablanca and the greater distance to Tunis permitted the Germans to enhance their positions in Tunisia. Due to navigational and endurance issues, the drop was scattered and the bulk of the aircraft forced to land in the desert. Operation Torch (Algeria-Morocco Campaign) Over 1300 axis soldiers died and nearly 2000 were wounded Winner: November 8, 1942 - November 11, 1942 Took place on the beaches near Casablanca on the Moroccan Atlantic Coast, Near Oran in Western Algeria and in Algiers east of Algeria The Central Task Force, aimed at Oran, comprised part of the 82nd Airborne and the US 1st Armored Division: 18500 troops. Around Lyautey the landing troops were uncertain of their position, and the second wave was delayed. He has appeared on The History Channel as a featured expert. Is there any way, I can print the summary of a model in PyTorch like model.summary() method does in Keras as follows? In general French resistancein Morocco, apart from the coastal batteries, was sporadic. In January 1943 German troops under General Erwin Rommel retreating westwards from Libya reached Tunisia. Professeur José Aboulker et Christine Levisse-Touzet. The French Navy broke from the harbour and attacked the Allied invasion fleet, but were sunk or driven ashore. They were transported directly from the United States. Landings at the westernmost beach were delayed because of a French convoy, which appeared while the minesweepers were clearing a path. The Soviet Union had been putting pressure on the United States and Britain to begin operations in Europe, a second front to relieve the pressure on the Russian forces. This page was last modified 09:48, 12 Jun 2005. Torch was an American led operation under Eisenhower with substantial UK support. Operation Torch, D-Day, and Battle of the Bulge 1585 Words | 6 Pages. The French were quickly helped by British forces. The French had around 60,000 soldiers in Morocco as well as coastal artillery, a handful of tanks and aircraft, with ten or so warships and 11 submarines at Casablanca. In 1942, having been persuaded of the impracticality of launching an invasion of France as a second front, American commanders agreed to conduct landings in northwest Africa with the goal of clearing the continent of Axis troops and preparing the way for a future attack on southern Europe. In their boldest move yet, the Allies planned out the invasion of North Africa through Operation Torch. While the American commanders favoured landings in France as soon as possible, the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill favoured an attack on northern Africa followed by an invasion of Europe in 1943. The French lost about 1,346 individuals while a further 1,997 were wounded. An attempt to land US Rangers at the harbour directly, in order to prevent desctruction of the port facilities and scuttling of ships, failed as the two destroyers were shattered by crossfire from the French vessels there. 3.3 Academic works about these events. These numbered around 120,000 men, 500 aircraft, and several warships. Patton entered the city unopposed. The Western Task Force (aimed at Casablanca) comprised all-American units, with Major-General George Patton in command and Rear Admiral Henry Kent Hewitt heading the naval operations. Heavy fire from the British battleships brought about the surrender on the 9th. General Ryder, commander of the 34th, was given explicit command of the first wave, since it was believed that the French would react more favourably to an American commander than a British one. Consisting of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division as well as the U.S. 3rd and 9th Infantry Divisions, the task force carried 35,000 men. Model Summary: Stack Overflow. The French Navy, which was present in strength at Casablanca and only minutes from the landings, stayed in its port and was put out of action by shelling. Tasked with landing the 18,500 men of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division and the U.S. 1st Armored Division on two beaches west of Oran and one to the east, they encountered difficulty due to insufficient reconnaissance. As a result, these forces came ashore under artillery fire from French troops in the area. The Allies intended to advance rapidly eastwards into Tunisia and attack the German forces in the rear. Initially dubbed Operation Gymnast, it was soon renamed Operation Torch. Some delay and confusion, and damage to landing ships, was caused by the unexpected shallowness of water and sandbars; no reconaissence parties had been landed on the beaches, only periscope observations from submarines (this would change in later invasions). Some landings went to the wrong beaches, but this was immaterial since there was no French resistance apart from a few rounds from a coastal battery, quickly silenced by British commandos. The landing beaches again came under fire after daybreak. Landing to the south of Casablanca at Safi as well as to the north at Fedala and Port Lyautey, the Americans were met with French opposition. When commanding General Harmon arrived French snipers had pinned the assault troops (most of whom were in combat for the first time) on the beaches. At Oran, an attempt was made to land troops directly in the harbor in an effort to capture the port facilities intact. Eisenhower coordinated the operation from his headquarters at Gibraltar. One French commander openly welcomed the Allies. The Eastern Task Force was led by Lieutenant General Kenneth Anderson and consisted of the U.S. 34th Infantry Division, two brigades of the British 78th Infantry Division, and two British Commando units. It consisted of the 2nd Armored Division, and the 3rd and 9th Divisions - 35000 troops in all. Safi surrendered on the afternoon of November 8th. The only fighting took place in the port of Algiers intself, where two British destroyers attempted to land a party of US Rangers directly onto the dock, in order to prevent the French destorying port facilities and scuttling ships. Overcoming shallow waters, the troops went ashore and encountered stubborn French resistance. 2.1 Political results American president Roosevelt suspected the African operation would rule out an invasion of Europe in 1943 but agreed to support Churchill. More details about the unfolding of the putsch of 8 November 1942 in the two French Wikipédia articles on the Torch operation. Anderson nearly succeeded in taking Tunis but was pushed back by determined enemy counterattacks. The Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942 was intended to draw Axis forces away from the Eastern Front, thus relieving pressure on the hard-pressed Soviet Union.