Both logic and critical thinking centrally involve the analysis and assessment of arguments. THE LOGIC OF THOUGHT . Imply means to suggest or convey an idea. Based on the little bit of Shonda’s speech we see here, her logic does seem to be sound. As we will learn in the following pages, we construct arguments based on logic. This is a problem because disagreements can't be resolved if those involved don't recognize what their disagreement is really about - or worse yet, actually disagree on what they disagree about. As the other person speaks, you may have every good intention of listening to the entire argument. We can trace the roots of modern logical study back to Aristotle in ancient Greece. However, this fact alone does not make it the opposite of deductive reasoning. Think back to Harrison’s argument for Sydney cleaning the bathroom. Understanding how logic is used will help us communicate more efficiently and effectively. Critical thinkers remain open to the possibility of changing their view on an issue when logic and evidence supports doing so. Arguments are about disagreement - people aren't likely to argue over things they agree on. In other words, she never directly says that we need to drink more red wine, but she clearly hints at it when she suggests that drinking four or more glasses a day will provide us with health benefits. It frequently involves finding flaws in the arguments of others, but that's not all that it's about. For example, in Shonda’s speech, she implies it is better to drink more red wine. We will consider syllogisms in a few minutes. Throughout their bathroom argument, both Harrison and Sydney use logical arguments to advance their point. She tells him she cleaned the bathroom last week; therefore, it is his turn this week. Probably not, but you need to be thorough in evaluating and considering how you use your evidence. A few observations and much reasoning lead to error; many observations and a little reasoning to truth. Harrison, still unconvinced, refuses to take responsibility for the chore. Every minute of every day we are surrounded by hundreds of different noises and sounds. When I was conducting research for my speech, I read somewhere that heart attacks are the number one killer of men and the number two killer of women. The Place of Logic in Philosophy. “Decorative toilet seat” by Bartux~commonswikiv. Critical thinkers are fair-minded and understand that a message is not inherently wrong or flawed if it differs from their own thoughts. (1989). A speaker or a piece of writing implies things. These traits are summarized in Table 6.1:[1], Recall that critical thinking is an active mode of thinking. Sydney may have agreed to take Harrison’s week of bathroom cleaning in exchange for him doing another one of her chores. This would be a misunderstanding of their true nature. Clearly, we can see the problem in this line of reasoning. Aristotle’s simple definition of logic as the means by which we come to know anything still provides a concise understanding of logic. Think about what happens when you try to discuss a controversial issue such as abortion. Critical thinking and logic are one of these fields. All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem. We examine how what we think on an issue may have influenced the way we understand (or think we understand) the message and any conclusions we have drawn. The Scope of Logic. In the debates over whether the United States should take military action in Iraq, this was the basic line of reasoning used to justify an invasion. Logical reasoning and critical thought are two sides of the same coin, although not necessarily the same thing. Unfortunately, there are fields where the worse a person is, the less likely they are to even recognize that they have made mistakes, much less will be able to fix them. Definition of Logic. A man who does not think for himself does not think at all. Logic: the art of thinking and reasoning in strict accordance with the limitations and incapacities of the human misunderstanding. We determine if their logic is sound or slightly flawed. It is virtually impossible for the first two propositions to be true and the conclusion to be false. Aristotle. Let’s begin with imply. Let’s critically think about each of their arguments to see why one fails and one succeeds. Any argument which fails to meet this standard commits a logical error or fallacy. The difference here in deduction is the truth of the propositions establishes with absolute certainty the truth of the conclusion. ~ David Hume. In public speaking, the value of being a critical thinker cannot be overstressed. In addition to being overweight, we suffer from a number of other health problems. Beliefs and Choices: Do You Choose Your Religion? Hence, to practice Critical Thinking is to apply some principles of Logic. If we were to try to make sense of each different sound we would probably spend our day just doing this. Inductive reasoning is often though of as the opposite of deductive reasoning; however, this approach is not wholly accurate. Without an open-minded mind, you can never be a great success. It seems like not a week goes by without some news story relating how we are the fattest country in the world. Propaganda is any organized, coordinated effort to convince masses of people to adopt some particular idea, belief, attitude, or viewpoint. How will further information affect the message? She then adds in evidence before concluding her argument. Having parsed out the various elements, we are then ready to evaluate them and by extension the message as a whole. Before we draw any inferences or attempt any explanations, we should look at the evidence provided. This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. As part of the needs section of her speech, Shonda makes the following remarks: Americans today are some of the unhealthiest people on Earth. Learn Religions uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. ~ Ambrose Bierce “Applied Deductive Reasoning” CC-BY-NC-ND . Most people may not need such skills in their day-to-day lives, but the truth is that almost everyone will benefit from learning how to think more critically. We use logic everyday when we construct statements, argue our point of view, and in myriad other ways. “US Invasion Deductive Reasoning Example”, http://publicspeakingproject.org/psvirtualtext.html, CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Martha_Stewart_nrkbeta.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seat_belt_BX.jpg, https://www.flickr.com/photos/ig8/4295549232/, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sharia-law-Billboard.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Decorative_toilet_seat.jpg%20, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WTC_1993_ATF_Commons.jpg. Even if we can’t identify the specific fallacy at work in the argument (non causa in this case), we know there is some flaw in the argument. The basic line of reasoning looks like this: This form of deductive reasoning is called a syllogism. In calling these as laws of thought, there is a danger of interpreting them as psychological laws concerning mental processes of thinking. Public domain. The chart indicates it is Harrison’s turn to clean the bathroom this week. Therefore, Sydney should clean the bathroom. When we think and speak logically, we pull together statements that combine reasoning with evidence to support an assertion, arguments. Sydney uses two primary pieces of evidence: the work chart and her statement that she cleaned the bathroom last week. The next step in critically examining a message is to interpret or explain the conclusions that we draw from it. Therefore, it would be incorrect to say that Shonda infers we should drink more rather than less wine. For example, let’s say you’re writing a speech on why we should wear our seatbelts at all times while driving. Based on the above principles, the critical thinking process should have three main stages; Observe, Question, and Answer.In order to clearly understand the three stages, we will use a design example: how people with wheelchair use the stairs to move from one level to another. Prior Analytics (Trans. Critical thinkers ask questions of the message, breaking it into its individual components and examining each in turn. Some find Critical Thinking as more applicable in evaluating everyday life reasoning where one deals with gray areas, fuzzy boundaries, and less clear cut responses.

principles of logic and critical thinking

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